As the present series of articles on various kinds of trees for fall color demonstrates, landscaping enthusiasts have many options for achieving colorful yards in autumn. Yet perhaps nothing else in Eastern North America is as intimately associated with the fall-foliage season as are the different types of maple trees. Below are some of the best varieties from which you may choose for your fall-color design (plus another type I have included to call attention to the specialized use to which it is put in the landscape).
Red Maple Trees
The fall foliage of red maples, or "swamp maple trees" (Acer rubrum spp.), unfortunately sometimes makes a liar out of the trees' name. That's why it's best to stick with cultivars known for their fall color consistency, such as 'Autumn Blaze'. If you want red fall foliage, I would also suggest purchasing Acer rubrum 'Red Sunset,' a tree that will reach about 50' in height, with a spread of a little less than that. This red maple tree grows best in zones 4-9 in full sun to partial shade, where the soil pH is acidic and the ground provides good drainage. For pictures of red maple trees and other maples, see the photo gallery above, on your right.
Even relatively consistent cultivars such as Red Sunset maple trees, however, are at the mercy of the weather. Intensity of fall foliage color can be lessened due to extreme summer heat and drought. And you’re not even out of the woods once fall arrives. Optimum fall foliage is dependent upon sunny days and crisp nights at the beginning of the autumn season.
Sugar Maple Trees
Sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum) should be grown in zones 3-8, in an area of your yard that is well-drained and gets full to partial sun. Famous as the source of "maple syrup," sugar maple trees can reach 80' or more in height, with a spread of up to 60'. Sugar maples have a fall foliage color range from yellow to orange to red. Again, fall foliage color will vary from year to year and place to place, depending on many factors.
Norway Maple Trees
Norway maple trees (Acer platanoides) adapt well to many soil types and environmental conditions. In fact, they adapt too well, as they have become an invasive plant in North America; substitute with sugar maple trees or red maple trees, which, in my opinion, boast superior beauty.
A reason for the widespread use of Norway maples as shade trees in urban areas across the U.S. is that they tolerate pollution better than many trees. Fall foliage color is yellow. Zones 3-7. Reaches an approximate size of 50' x 50'. Norway maples do best in full sun and well-drained soil.
Amur: Another Invasive
Amur maple trees (Acer ginnala 'Flame') are grown in zones 2-8 and are a compact alternative to the specimens described above, attaining a maximum size of only about 20' x 20'. Like the Norways, however, they are considered invasive. Although they will tolerate light shade, Amur maple trees achieve their best fall color if you make an effort to ensure they get full sun. The effort will pay off handsomely: their fall foliage color is a brilliant red.
I mentioned in my opening that one type of maple has a highly specialized use in the landscape. I was referring to the hedge maple (Acer campestre), which, as its common name suggests, is used in (tall) hedges. Hedge maples are valued not so much for their fall foliage as for their growth habit and the fact that they are tolerant of compacted soil and pollution. In terms of growth habit, their branching pattern is dense and begins far down on the trunk; they are slow-growers. Put all these facts together, and it is easy to see how Acer campestre, with a little judicious pruning (they can reach a height of 35 feet if left unchecked), could be an ideal choice where a tall hedge is required to screen one's property along a roadside.