Plant Taxonomy of Goldenrod:
classifies goldenrod (sometimes misspelled "golden rod") in the genus, Solidago
. Many species exist; Audubon's Field Guide to New England
states that there are more than a dozen in that region. One of the more widespread -- and more striking -- types of this flower is common or "Canada" goldenrod plant (Solidago canadensis
Plant Type and Care:
Goldenrod is an herbaceous perennial.
In its native region (see below), it requires little care. For aesthetic purposes, cut down the dead stalks in late fall and compost them. Divide and transplant in spring if you wish to propagate (but see below about the plant's aggressiveness).
In addition to being the name of a wildflower, "goldenrod" is also the name of a color: defined as "a strong to vivid yellow." You need search no further for the defining characteristic of this plant, whose flower stalks bristle with numerous small flowers of a vivid yellow or gold. Although there are many types of goldenrod flowers, this perennial is, generally speaking, a tall, slim plant (4-5 feet for some types) topped off with fluffy, golden flower spikes. Thus the most likely derivation of the common name: golden (for the flower color) + rod (a reference to its spindly shape).
Where Does Goldenrod Grow?:
Most types are indigenous
to North America, where they grow as wildflowers in pastures and along roadsides. There are goldenrods as far north as zone
2 and as far south as at least zone 8.
Caveats in Growing Goldenrod Plants:
This flower is an aggressive spreader that may take over an area and form a monoculture. This wildflower may thus be considered an invasive plant outside its native range. The plants spread not only by reseeding, but also via underground rhizomes.
Fortunately, one caveat you'll hear concerning this flower is mainly a myth. People who speak of "goldenrod allergy" are usually guilty of blaming the wrong weed for their hay fever, the real culprit being ragweed. Does this fact make you curious enough to ask, "What does ragweed look like?"
Goldenrod will perform well in full to partial sun and a well-drained soil. Cultivars exist that don't spread as aggressively as do their wild counterparts; one is 'Crown of Rays.'
If you grow a wild version, one way to check the spread of its rhizomes is by using bamboo barriers. Another way (if you have just a small number of the plants) is to transplant frequently, so that your goldenrod never quite feels "at home."
To keep goldenrod flowers from reseeding, cut off the flower heads before seeds develop. Since goldenrod plants have stiff stems, it's easy to use them in flower arrangements.
Medicinal Uses for Goldenrod:
Medicinal usage traditionally has ranged from anti-inflammatory to diuretic uses. It was also used as a vulnerary herb (i.e., a plant used to promote the healing of wounds), as were sweet woodruff
. In fact, its function as a vulnerary accounts for the genus name, Solidago
, which derives from the Latin solidare
(meaning "strengthen" or "make whole").
Is It a "Wildflower" or a "Weed"?:
Should this flower be considered a "type of wildflower
" or "type of weed
? The distinction is subjective. It is an attractive plant only when in bloom; its stalk and leaves have a "weedy" appearance. Bloom time, depending on the type of goldenrod, is from mid-summer or late summer until frost in cold climates. For some, the beauty provided by this flower for those 2 or 3 months is sufficient to earn it a spot in their wildflower garden.
Wildlife Attracted to Goldenrod:
This flower is widely known as a plant that attracts butterflies. Canada goldenrod is a food source for the following butterflies:
- Clouded sulfur
- American small copper
- Gray hairstreak
Goldenrod attracts a number of other insects, too, including bees.
Goldenrod plants are in the aster family. A huge family of flowering plants, the aster family includes not only plants with "aster" in their names, but many other plants, too; for example: